All patients that are admitted to the study ward(s) during the CHARMER trial period are eligible to be enrolled and this is separate to recruitment. The exceptions are:

  • Patients who are under the care of a consultant other than a geriatrician (e.g., if the ward(s) have some patients under the care of a cardiologist, those patients would not be eligible as the CHARMER intervention is received by geriatricians and pharmacists),
  • Patients who choose to opt out of their data being used for research, or
  • If a patient or consultee refuses consent/assent for all research activities during the two enhanced data collection periods (patients or consultees that decline questionnaire completion can still participate on the basis of access to routine data alone).